All Issue

2021 Vol.37, Issue 1 Preview Page

Research Article

May 2021. pp. 49-61
Abstract
The current study investigated the effects of two writing genres (narrative and argumentative) and two writing task types (direct and translated) on L2 learners’ writing performance in terms of lexical and syntactic complexity. A total of 46 college freshmen were asked to write four articles, one in each genre and one in each writing task type in a counterbalanced way. The findings are as follows: 1) the genre effect was found significant both in lexical and syntactic complexity measures, irrespective of writing task type, that argumentative texts displayed greater lexical and syntactic complexity than narratives; and 2) the role of L1 use in L2 writing (writing task type) was significantly evident in syntactic complexity measures, especially in narratives, but not in lexical complexity measures except for one measure of lexical diversity. The theoretical and pedagogical significance of the findings is discussed.
References
  1. Ai, H. and X. Lu. 2010. A Web-based System for Automatic Measurement of Lexical Complexity. Paper presented at the 27 annual Symposium of the Computer-Assisted Language Consortium (CALICO-10), Amherst, MA.
  2. Ai, H. and X. Lu. 2013. A Corpus-based Comparison of Syntactic Complexity in NNS and NS University Students’ Writing. In A Díaz-Negrillo, N. Ballier, and P. Thompson (Eds.), Automatic Treatment and Analysis of Learner Corpus Data (pp. 249-264). Amsterdam, the Netherlands: John Benjamins.10.1075/scl.59.15ai
  3. Badger, R. and G. White. 2000. A Process Genre Approach to Teaching Writing. ELT Journal 54.2, 153-160.10.1093/elt/54.2.153
  4. Beers, S. and W. Nagy. 2011. Writing Development in Four Genres from Grades Three to Seven: Syntactic Complexity and Genre Differentiation. Reading and Writing 24, 183-202.10.1007/s11145-010-9264-9
  5. Berman, R. A. and D. I. Slobin. 1994. Relating Events in Narrative: A Crosslinguistic Developmental Study. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
  6. Biber, D., B. Gray, and k. Poonpon. 2011. Should We Use Characteristics of Conversation to Measure Grammatical Complexity in L2 Writing Development? TESOL Quarterly 45, 5-35.10.5054/tq.2011.244483
  7. Bruner, J. 1986. Actual Minds, Possible Words. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.10.4159/9780674029019
  8. Byrnes, H., H. Maxim, and J. Norris. 2010. Realizing Advanced Foreign Language Writing Development in Collegiate Education: Curricular Design, Pedagogy, Assessment. The Modern Language Journal 94.1, 1-25.10.1111/j.1540-4781.2010.01137.x
  9. Centeno-Cortés, B. and A. Jiménez. 2004. Problem-solving Tasks in a Foreign Language: The Importance of the L1 in Private Verbal Thinking. International Journal of Applied Linguistics 14, 7-35.10.1111/j.1473-4192.2004.00052.x
  10. Chelala, S. 1981. The Composing Process of Two Spanish-speakers and the Coherence of Their Texts: A Case Study. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, New York University, New York.
  11. Cohen, A. D. and A. Brooks-Carson. 2001. Research on Direct versus Translated writing Processes: Students’ Strategies and Their Results. The Modern Language Journal 85.2, 169-188.10.1111/0026-7902.00103
  12. Cumming, A. 1989. Writing Expertise and Second Language Proficiency. Language Learning 39, 81-141.10.1111/j.1467-1770.1989.tb00592.x
  13. Eckstein, G. and D. Ferris. 2018. Comparing L1 and L2 Texts and Writers in First-year Composition. TESOL Quarterly 52.1, 137-162.10.1002/tesq.376
  14. Grabe, W. and R. B. Kaplan. 1996. Theory and Practice of Writing. London: Longman.
  15. Hinkel, E. 2011. What Research on Second Language Writing Tells Us and What It Doesn’t. In E. Hinkel (Ed.), Handbook of Research in Second Language Teaching and Learning (Vol. 2, pp. 523-538). New York: Routledge.10.4324/9780203836507 PMC4095769
  16. Hudelson, S. 1989. Write On: Children Writing in ESL. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
  17. Huot, B. 1990. The Literature of Firect Writing Assessment: Major Concerns about Prevailing Trends. Review of Educational Research 60.2, 237-263.10.3102/00346543060002237
  18. Hwang, M. H. and H.-K. Lee. 2012. A Comparative Study of the Effects of Translated Writing and Direct Writing on English Writing Performance. English Teaching 67.2, 291-318. 10.15858/engtea.67.2.201207.291
  19. Hyland, K. 2003. Teaching and Researching Writing. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  20. Knutson, E. M. 2006. Thinking in English, Writing in French. The French Review 80.1, 88-109.
  21. Kobayashi, H. and C. Rinnert. 1992. Effects of First Language on Second Language Writing: Translation vs. Direct composition. Language Learning 42, 183-215.10.1111/j.1467-1770.1992.tb00707.x
  22. Lee, J.-W. and K.-O. Yoon. 2017. EFL Learners’ Direct vs. Translated Writing in Different Writing Genres. English Teaching 72.2., 125-146.
  23. Lu, X. .2010. Automatic Analysis of Syntactic Complexity in Second Language Writing. International Journal of Corpus Linguistics 15, 474-496.10.1075/ijcl.15.4.02lu
  24. Lu, X. 2011. A Corpus-based Evaluation of Syntactic Complexity Measures as Indices of College-level ESL Writers’ Language Development. TESOL Quarterly 45, 36-62.10.5054/tq.2011.240859
  25. Lu, X. 2012. The Relationship of Lexical Richness to the Quality of ESL Learners’ Oral Narratives. The Modern Language Journal 96.2, 190-208.10.1111/j.1540-4781.2011.01232_1.x
  26. Lu, X. and H. Ai. 2015. Syntactic Complexity in College-level English Writing: Differences among Writers with Diverse L1 Backgrounds. Journal of Second Language Writing 29, 16-27.10.1016/j.jslw.2015.06.003
  27. Manchón, R. M., J. Roca de Larios, and L. Murphy. 2000. An Approximation to the Study of Backtracking in L2 Writing. Learning and Instruction 10, 13-35.10.1016/S0959-4752(99)00016-X
  28. Qi, D. S. 1998. An Inquiry into Language-switching in Second Language Composing Processes. The Canadian Modern Language Review 54.3, 413-436.10.3138/cmlr.54.3.413
  29. Ravid, D. 2005. Emergence of Linguistic Complexity in Later Language Development: Evidence from Expository Text Construction. In D. Ravid and H. B. Shyldkrot (Eds.), Perspectives on Language and Language Development: Essays in Honor of Ruth A. Berman (pp. 337-356). London: Kluwer Academic. 10.1007/1-4020-7911-7_25
  30. Ravid, D. and D. Tolchinsky. 2002. Developing Linguistic Literacy: A Comprehensive Model. Journal of Child Language 29, 419-448.10.1017/S0305000902005111 12109379
  31. Scott, V. 1995. Rethinking Foreign Language Writing. Boston, MA: Heinle and Heinle.
  32. Staples, S. and R. Reppen. 2016. Understanding First-year L2 Writing: A Lexico-grammatical Analysis across L1s, Genres, and Language Ratings. Journal of Second Language Writing 32, 17-35.10.1016/j.jslw.2016.02.002
  33. Uzawa, K. 1996. Second Language Learners’ Processes of L1 Writing, L2 Writing, and Translation from L1 into L2. Journal of Second Language Writing 5.3, 271-294.10.1016/S1060-3743(96)90005-3
  34. Uzawa, K. and A. Cumming. 1989. Writing Strategies in Japanese as a Foreign Language: Lowering or Keeping up the Standards. The Canadian Modern Language Review 46, 178-194.10.3138/cmlr.46.1.178
  35. Van Weijen, D., H. Van den Bergh, G. Rijlaarsdam, and T. Sanders. 2009. L1 Use during L2 Writing: An Empirical Study of a Complex Phenomenon. Journal of Second Language Writing 18, 235-250.10.1016/j.jslw.2009.06.003
  36. Wang, L. 2003. Switching to First Language among Writers with Differing Second-language Proficiency. Journal of Second Language Writing 12, 347-375.10.1016/j.jslw.2003.08.003
  37. Wang, W. and Q. Wen. 2002. L1 Use in the L2 Composing Process: An Exploratory Study of 16 Chinese EFL Writers. Journal of Second Language Writing 11, 225-246.10.1016/S1060-3743(02)00084-X
  38. Way, P., E. G. Joiner, and M. Seaman. 2000. Writing in the Secondary Foreign Language Classroom: The Effects of Prompts and Tasks on Novice Learners of French. The Modern Language Journal 84, 171-184.10.1111/0026-7902.00060
  39. Weigle, S. C. 2002. Assessing Writing. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.10.1017/CBO9780511732997
  40. Whalen, K. and N. Ménard. 1995. L1 and L2 Writers’ Strategic and Linguistic Knowledge: A Model of Multiple-level Discourse Processing. Language Learning 45, 381-418.10.1111/j.1467-1770.1995.tb00447.x
  41. Woodall, B. R. 2002. Language-switching: Using the First Language While Writing in a Second Language. Journal of Second Language Writing 11, 7-28.10.1016/S1060-3743(01)00051-0
  42. Yoon, K.-O. and J.-W. Lee. 2016. EFL Learners’ English Writing Performance in Different Writing Task Types. English Language and Literature Teaching 22.4, 161-178.
  43. Yoon, H-J. and C. Polio. 2017. The Linguistic Development of Students of English as a Second Language in Two Written Genres. TESOL Quarterly 51.2, 275-301.10.1002/tesq.296
  44. Zamel, V. 1982. Writing: The Process of Discovering Meaning. TESOL Quarterly 16, 195-209.10.2307/3586792
Information
  • Publisher :The Modern Linguistic Society of Korea
  • Publisher(Ko) :한국현대언어학회
  • Journal Title :The Journal of Studies in Language
  • Journal Title(Ko) :언어연구
  • Volume : 37
  • No :1
  • Pages :49-61