• Research Article

    A Research on Time Expressions based on Conceptual Metaphor Theory

    시간 표현의 개념적 은유 연구

    Kim, Hyun Hyo

    김현효

    We cannot conceptualize time on its own terms. Conceptual metaphor theory shows how source domains including resource, space, entity, or even person … + READ MORE
    We cannot conceptualize time on its own terms. Conceptual metaphor theory shows how source domains including resource, space, entity, or even person are used to conceptualize time as a target domain. Since Lakoff and Johnson (1999), many linguists have focused on how space concepts are used to understand and express time. Evans (2004) developed a cognitive model for time, including the ‘moving time model’, ‘moving ego model’, and ‘temporal sequence model’. Later Evans (2013, 2019) adopted a unique characteristic of time, ‘transience’ and developed three temporal frames of references (t-FoRs) model: deitic t-FoR, sequential t-FoR, and extrinsic t-FoR. - COLLAPSE
    28 February 2022
  • Research Article

    Students’ Perception of Online English Classes Using Zoom

    영어강좌의 줌(Zoom)강의에 대한 학생들의 반응

    Woo, Sangdo

    우상도

    This study aimed to determine how Korean college students in online English courses focusing on presentation and communication skills perceived Zoom as … + READ MORE
    This study aimed to determine how Korean college students in online English courses focusing on presentation and communication skills perceived Zoom as a video conference tool. This study involved 133 juniors at a university of education specializing in primary education. The data for the study were obtained using an online questionnaire with 11 five-point Richter scale questions and six open-ended questions and were analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively. The findings of this study were as follows: first, the overall satisfaction level of online classes using Zoom was very high (4.39), and 87% of students indicated the series of intensive practices in the Zoom classes were effective; second, practice in breakout rooms with 2-4 students were highly effective and sharing feedback in the breakout rooms were generally received positively; third, students’ responses showed that Zoom was a convenient and efficient tool for online classes; fourth, approximately 89% of the students would prefer to have online classes included as a part their face to face regular classes, and 80% of the students want to have up to half or one-third of their classes online. - COLLAPSE
    28 February 2022
  • Research Article

    Syntactic Priming by L2 LSTM Language Models
    Choi, Sunjoo and Park, Myung-Kwan
    Neural(-network) language models (LMs) have recently been successful in performing the tasks that require sensitivity to syntactic structure. We provide further evidence … + READ MORE
    Neural(-network) language models (LMs) have recently been successful in performing the tasks that require sensitivity to syntactic structure. We provide further evidence for their sensitivity to syntactic structure by showing that compared to adding a non-adaptive counterpart to it, adding an adaptation-as-priming paradigm to L2 LSTM LMs improves their ability to track abstract structure. By applying a gradient similarity metric between structures, this mechanism allows us to reconstruct the organization of the L2 LMs’ syntactic representational space. In so doing, we discover that sentences with a particular type of relative clauses behave in a similar fashion to other sentences with the same type of relative clauses in the L2 LMs’ representation space, in keeping with the recent studies of L1 LM adaptation. We also demonstrate that the similarity between given sentences is not affected by specific words in sentences. Our results show that the L2 LMs have the ability to track abstract structural properties of sentences, just as L1 LMs do. - COLLAPSE
    28 February 2022
  • Research Article

    Korean Copula Construction Redux
    Choi, YoungSik
    It has been quite a controversy what the nature of the Korean copula is, witnessing a growing body of research. There have … + READ MORE
    It has been quite a controversy what the nature of the Korean copula is, witnessing a growing body of research. There have been two lines of reasoning. One is that the copula is a clitic as claimed by Chung and Kim (2002). They claim that the copula, although lexically an independent word, undergoes cliticization to its complement to be bound, thus syntactically not an independent word. The other is that the copula is an affix, hence a bound morpheme, as claimed by Cho and Sells (1995). I will show none of the proposals hold. I argue that the Korean copula is syntactically an independent word. I present various arguments, morphological and syntactic in nature, to support the present proposal. - COLLAPSE
    28 February 2022
  • Research Article

    Complex NP Island Constraints in English: Experimental vs. Deep Learning Approach
    Lee, Yong-hun
    This paper examined two types of complex NP island constraints (Appositives and Relatives) in English, with an experimental approach and a deep … + READ MORE
    This paper examined two types of complex NP island constraints (Appositives and Relatives) in English, with an experimental approach and a deep learning approach. In the experimental approach, this paper followed the design in Lee and Park (2018). A total of 120 sentences were employed in the experiment: 40 sentences for the target and 80 sentences for the fillers. For the deep learning approach, this paper utilized the BERTLARGE model that was developed in Lee (2021). The dataset was composed of 240 sentences: 40 sentences for the target and 200 sentences for the fillers. These 240 sentences were used as an input dataset to the BERTLARGE model, and the acceptability scores were calculated for each sentence. After the acceptability scores were obtained for all the target sentences in two different types of approaches, they were normalized into the z-scores and statistical analyses were applied to them. Through the analysis, the followings were observed: (i) both the experimental approach and the BERTLARGE model correctly identified two complex NP island constraints in English, (ii) two factors (Island and Location) and their interaction (Island:Location) affected the acceptability scores of island sentences, and (iii) two approaches made different predictions on the DD scores of the two complex NP island constraints. - COLLAPSE
    28 February 2022
  • Research Article

    Textual Metafunction in Korean English Learners’ Writings
    Woo, Sujung
    The current study explores the textual metafunction in Korean English learners’ writings by examining the Theme choices and the patterns of the … + READ MORE
    The current study explores the textual metafunction in Korean English learners’ writings by examining the Theme choices and the patterns of the Thematic progression in the writings in two different proficiency levels. The analysis of the Theme and Thematic progression can be a useful tool to analyze the writings in that they characterize English learners’ writings based on the linguistic choices they have made. Moreover, it is useful because the writings are examined not just on a structure of a sentence level but on the linguistic resources that writers use to communicate in a larger discourse level. As a result, the present study has found that the high and low level learners have difficulties employing nominalization and existential there in the Theme position of a clause. The utilization of the multiple Theme in both groups does not indicate a meaningful difference between the two groups. However, the employment of markedness of Theme demonstrates a slight difference between the two levels. In terms of Thematic progression, the three typical types of Thematic progression have been found in the study: linear Thematic progression, Thematic progression with constant Theme, and multiple-Rheme. Besides these patterns, some problematic patterns are found in the writings that coincide with the previous research. - COLLAPSE
    28 February 2022